Chemical Analysis | Volumetric Analysis | Part 1 | Class 12 | New Curriculam 2078 | Notes | Nepal |

 Chemical Analysis

The analysis which is done for the detection of main constituents present in the given chemical compound.


Qualitative Analysis

The analysis which is done for the detection of ions or radicals present in the given inorganic salt is known as qualitative analysis.


Quantitative Analysis

The analysis which is done by measuring the quantity of a particular component present in the given inorganic salt is known as quantitative analysis.


Gravimetric analysis

The word 'gravimetric' derived from Latin word; 'gravis' means weighing and 'metric' means measurement.

Gravimetric analysis is the part/method of analytical analysis to determine the quantity of analyte based on the mass of solid.

Example: Measuring the solids suspended in the water sample: once a known volume of water is filtered, the collected solids are weighed.


Steps in gravimetric analysis

1.     1  Preparation of a solution
2.       Precipitation
3.       Filtration
4.       Washing
5.       Drying and ignition
6.       Heating to constant weight


1.     Preparation of solution: A definite quantity of a substance under consideration is taken and it's solution is prepared in a suitable solvent.

2.    Precipitation: The constituent to be determined is precipitated by adding an appropriate reagent (precipitant) in slight excess to a dilute hot solution of the weighted sample with constant stirring. The insoluble precipitate should be highly insoluble and be easily filterable.

3.       Filtration: It is the process of the separation of precipitate from the mother liquor. If can be done either by filter paper sintered glass crucible etc

4.       Washing: Precipitate should be washed several times with a suitable wash liquid. Washing should be continued till the filtrate is free from specified ions.

5.       Drying and ignition: It is done to remove solvent and wash electrolytes and is done by heating at 110°C to 120°C for 1 to 2 hours

Heating to constant weight: After the precipitate is allowed to cool (preferably in a desiccators to keep it from absorbing moisture).

Volumetric Analysis

It is a general term for a method in quantitative analysis in which the amount of substance is determined by the measurement of the volume that the substance occupies.

It is commonly used to determine the unknown concentration of known reactant.

It is ofter referred to as titration, a laboratory technique in which one substance of known concentration and volume is used to react with another substance of known concentration.


The process in which the concentration of unknown solution is determined with the help of standard solution by using the indicator is called titration.


The solution of known concentration which is usually taken in a burette is called titrant.


The solution of unknown concentration which is being titrated and usually taken in a conical flask is called titrand.

Titration is the slow addition of one solution of a known concentration (called a titrant) to a known value of another solution of unknown concentration until the reaction reaches neutralization, which is often indicated by a color change

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